Milena Vanieri is Associate Professor in Management at the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies in Pisa. She has been leading the Management and Health Laboratory since 2019 and she is the deputy director of the Institute of Management. Her main expertise relies upon performance management systems in health care. She is Principal Investigator of numerous research projects, such as the development of the Health System Performance Assessment (HSPA) in Croatia, the Inter-regional Performance Evaluation System in 11 Italian Regions and the Performance Evaluation System in four districts and hospitals in Ethiopia, Uganda, and Tanzania. She was involved as an expert on measuring performance in health care by the European Commission, DG Employment, Social Affairs, and Inclusion for the Joint Assessment Framework (JAF) for health (2016), by DG REGIO of the European Commission for the definition of investment priorities in health in Italy for the period 2021/2027 (2020), by the Italian Ministry of Health for the monitoring of pandemic flu (2021-2023) and she is a member of the board of directors of the National Healthcare Agency (Agenas) assessing performance in Italy. She is part of the AfricaConnect team of the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and she has been participating in other projects settled in Africa as a co-investigator in collaboration with Doctors with Africa CUAMM.